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What is Black Friday and why is it celebrated



Black Friday

Thanksgiving holiday shopping, which is first celebrated not but its rather a financial crisis—more particularly, the collapse of the United states gold market on September 24, 1869—was the subject of the earliest recorded use of the phrase “Black Friday.”In order to drive the price of the nation’s gold as high as possible and sell it for astounding profits, two infamously cunning Wall Street financiers, Jim Fisk and Jay Gould, collaborated to buy up as much of it as they could.

When the plot eventually came to light on that September Friday, it bankrupted everyone—from Wall Street moguls to farmers—and sent the financial markets into a rapid slide. The day after Thanksgiving, known as Black Friday, has grown to be one of the biggest shopping occasions of the year in US. In order to draw customers into their locations, national chain stores typically provide a limited number of money-saving discounts on a selection of products while also providing comparable offers online.

Why is it called ‘Black Friday’?
As two investors, Jay Gould and Jim Fisk, inflated the price of gold in order to precipitate a market crash in 1869, the phrase “Black Friday” was first used. As a consequence, the stock market fell 20%, foreign trade ceased, and farmers saw a sharp decline in the value of their maize and wheat crops.
The phrase was revived much later and applied to the day among Thanksgiving and the Military game in Philadelphia in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Large throngs of visitors and shoppers would be attracted by the event, necessitating extra time from law enforcement to control traffic.

Black Friday History:
The phrase “Black Friday” was first used by Philadelphia police officers to describe the confusion that occurred when a large number of suburban tourists arrived in the city to start their christmas shopping as well as, in some years, to attend the yearly basis Army-Navy football game on Saturday in the early 1960s. The large crowds caused the police to work longer shifts than normal as they handled with shoplifting, traffic bottlenecks, accidents, and other problems.
Philadelphia quickly became well-known for the expression “Black Friday”. “Big Friday” is the name that is given to the day by city merchants in the effort to make it look alot better.
Black Friday as a term for an increase in retail sales didn’t become widely used until late 1980s, when businesses began to promote the myth of red-to-black profits. According to reports, Black Friday is both the busiest shopping weekend in the US and the day when retail establishments start to earn a profit for year. In reality, the Saturday preceding Christmas was the busiest shopping day for the majority of retailers.

Several shopping holidays have popped up in more recent years to compete with Black Friday, such as Small Business Saturday and Monday, which encourage consumers to purchase online. Offering Tuesday has also become popular to encourage charitable giving.

In the past, Black Friday had a different connotation which had nothing to do with purchasing. Wall Street financiers Jay Gould & Jim Fisk attempted to corner the nation’s gold market in 1869 by buying quite so much gold as they can and at the New York Gold Exchange in an effort to raise prices. The scheme was foiled by President Ulysses S. Grant’s involvement on Friday, September 24. Immediately following the stock market collapse, hundreds of Americans declared bankruptcy.

Another story that gives the custom a particularly vile twist has recently come to light, according to which Southern plantation owners could purchase enslaved labor at a discount on the day following Thanksgiving in the 1800s. Although some have rightfully called for a boycotting of the commercial holiday in response to this story of Black Friday’s origins, this demand is unfounded.

The Evolution of Black Friday
Black Friday has evolved over time from crowded streets and overcrowded stores to fevered crowds squabbling over parking spots and the newest must-have toy. How did Black Friday turn into the maddening, excessive shopping occasion that it is now?
Black Friday was formally recognised as the busiest shopping weekend of the year for the 2000s, at that point. That honour had previously been reserved on the Saturday preceding Christmas. But when more stores began advertising “can’t miss” post-Thanksgiving specials, and as Black Friday deals got bigger and bigger, American shoppers were powerless to resist the allure of this major shopping day.
In 2011, Walmart made the announcement that it would begin selling items on Thanksgiving night rather than opening the doors on Friday morning. Other big-box retailers went into a frenzy after that and rapidly imitated it. Black Friday has grown in size in modern times.

Black Friday vs. Cyber Monday
On the Monday after Thanksgiving, a similar custom known as “Cyber Monday” has developed for internet shops. After the Thanksgiving long weekend, shoppers are expected to return to work eager to start shopping. To compete with the Black Friday deals at brick-and-mortar establishments, online companies frequently announce their promotions and specials before the actual day.
Now a days, Cyber Monday has became a successful in terms of sales among consumers all around the world. Although Black Friday has since 2019 eclipsed Cyber Monday as the busiest internet shopping day of the year, Cyber Monday had previously held that title.
For the first time, and over 100 million consumers made online purchases on Black Friday in 2020, and the proportion of internet-only buyers rose by 44% throughout the course of the holiday season. However, many stores stayed closed on Thanksgiving 2020 due to the COVID-19 epidemic and instead offered Black Friday specials online. According to the NRF, 127.8 million customers made online purchases in 2021 as opposed to 145.4 millions in 2020. Relative to 92.3 million shoppers in 2020, 104.9 million people made in-store purchases in 2021.

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This winter, France could experience “some days” of power outages. operating a grid



Government representatives from the region have been asked to make sure that patients receiving life-saving medical attention are informed three days in advance of any power outages so they can be moved to alternative facilities.

As the government informed local authorities on how to handle any potential outages, the president of French power grid operator RTE indicated on Thursday that France may see “several days”this winter, when a lack of electricity could cause blackouts.

Xavier Piechaczyk said on France Info radio that while there are hazards in the circumstances, power outages are not necessarily a given.

Piechaczyk adhered to the final supply forecast issued by the agency, which had warned of potential shortages in January.

As of December 1, we had 35 gigawatts of nuclear power available; our goal is to increase that to between 40 and 41 on January 1 and to roughly 43 by the end of the month, compared to a total capacity of 61.

The projection, according to Piechaczyk, was based on the EDF nuclear maintenance timetable, and some extra delays were already foreseen.

EDF’s network of nuclear reactors has experienced an unprecedented number of outages, bringing nuclear output to a 30-year low as Europe rushes to replace Russian gas supplies that Moscow shut off in response to sanctions the European Union imposed over its invasion of Ukraine.

According to RTE’s scenario, there is a chance that “some days this winter” may see Ecowatt, the nation’s electricity monitoring app, flash a red warning. It would be necessary to load customers partially off the power grid as a result.

Piechaczyk stated that the app has not yet been used by enough individuals.”Our app has been downloaded by around 300,000 people, and we have 470,000,000,000 SMS alert subscribers. We need to conduct more advertising because that is not enough, he remarked.

According to analysts cited by Reuters, the first power outages might start as early as Monday due to the chilly weather.

If we remain at 35 GW, Monday of the following week might become quite tight, warned Refinitiv analyst Nathalie Gerl. We forecast consumption at typically seasonal average levels, but 35 GW of nuclear power would not be enough to meet a fictitious peak demand of 73 GW.

We don’t anticipate a red alert until the end of 2022, said Frederic Lefort, head of business and administrative clients at Engie, one of the major power providers, during a Thursday event.


According to Reuters, the French government has delivered legally binding guidelines outlining the proper way to prioritize electricity allocation to regional government authorities. Additionally, it exhorts them to consult with local businesses and authorities to ensure that all emergency power generators are operational.

The government stated in the instructions that any planned outages “should not affect more than 4 million people at the same time,” and that any local load-shedding procedures should not run longer than two hours and will be announced by RTE at 5 p.m. local time the day before.

According to the rules, critical locations like hospitals can be exempted, but schools should be closed on days when there aren’t enough supplies available.

Additionally, regional government representatives were requested to make sure that patients seeking life-saving medical attention had three days’ warning of potential power outages so they could be moved to alternative places.

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According to Buckingham Palace, a Member of the Royal Service Resigned After Making Racial Remarks




member of the royal service resigned after making racial remarks

After claims of racism were made by Prince Harry and his wife Meghan in an interview with Oprah Winfrey in March 2021, the incident is the most recent to involve the royal family.

A representative for the British royal family said on Wednesday that a member of the household had resigned after making “unacceptable and extremely unfortunate” remarks to a woman at a formal reception at Buckingham Palace about her race and nationality.

When Ngozi Fulani, a British-born employee of a domestic abuse support organization, attended an event on Tuesday that was hosted by King Charles’s wife Camilla, the queen consort, a royal 

“Because we take this problem very seriously, we are immediately initiating an inquiry to gather all of the evidence.” According to a statement from a representative for Buckingham Palace, in this scenario, abhorrent and highly terrible comments have been made.

Following accusations made by Prince Harry and his wife Meghan in an interview with Oprah Winfrey in March 2021, the incident is the most recent to involve the royal family in racial accusations.

In the interview, Meghan claimed that an unnamed family member had enquired about the potential skin colour of their son Archie before his birth.

The alleged incident clearly hurt the monarchy, which pledged to treat any such matters seriously, and led Harry’s older brother Prince William, the heir to the throne, to make a comment days later.

“Our family is not at all racist.”

According to Buckingham Palace, the person involved in the most recent incident, identified by Fulani as Lady SH, would like to apologize for the hurt caused and has resigned from her honorary position with immediate effect.

The conversation took place at a reception at the palace for violence against women and girls. Olena Zelenska, the first lady of Ukraine, Queen Mathilde of Belgium, and Queen Rania of Jordan were among the attendees.

In a statement shared on Twitter, Fulani, who works for Sistah Space, a nonprofit that supports women of African and Caribbean descent who have experienced abuse, claimed that about 10 minutes after arriving, an aide approached her and moved her hair so she could see her name badge.

She allegedly said, “I am born here and am British,” when asked repeatedly from what region of Africa she was originally from, according to Fulani.

No, but where are you actually from, and where are your people from, the assistant said.

Despite efforts to increase the number of employees from ethnic minorities, a top royal source claimed that Buckingham Palace had not done enough to promote diversity last year.

Ngozi Fulani has been contacted about this and is being invited to talk in person about all aspects of her experience, according to a palace official.

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Data Shows that Nonreligious People are Growing While Christians are Declining in England




Christians are declining in England

According to the most recent census, less than half of individuals in England and Wales identify as Christians. This is the first time a minority of people have practiced the nation’s official religion.

In the ten years after the last census, Britain has gotten less white and less religious, according to data from the 2021 census released on Tuesday by the Office for National Statistics.

On the day of the 2021 census, 46.2% of the people in England and Wales identified as Christians, down from 59.3% a decade earlier. The percentage of Muslims increased from 4.9% to 6.5% of the overall population, while the percentage of Hindus increased from 1.5% to 1.7%.

37% of respondents, an increase from 25% in 2011, claimed to have no faith.

The census results for Scotland and Northern Ireland are reported separately from the rest of the United Kingdom.

Campaigners for secularism stated that the change should prompt a reconsideration of how deeply ingrained religion is in British culture. The monarch is the “defender of the faith” and the head of the church in the United Kingdom, which also has publicly funded Church of England schools and houses Anglican bishops in the House of Commons.

According to Andrew Copson, CEO of the nonprofit Humanists U.K., the U.K. is now “probably likely one of the least religious countries on Earth” as a result of “the huge expansion of the non-religious.”

The disparity between the people and the state itself, he claimed, is one of the results’ most striking features. “No state in Europe has such a religious setup in terms of legislation and public policy, while yet having such a nonreligious populace,” said the author.

Stephen Cottrell, the Archbishop of York and one of the most senior clergymen in the Church of England, said the statistics was “not a tremendous surprise,” but it was a reminder to Christians to be more active in spreading their faith.

We are past the time when most people almost always identified as Christians, but other polls consistently demonstrate that the same people are still looking for spiritual guidance, wisdom, and a set of principles to live by”,he said.

In the census, almost 82% of persons in England and Wales identified as white, a decrease from 86% in 2011. Nine percent of respondents identified as Asian, four percent as Black, three percent as coming from “mixed or numerous” ethnic backgrounds, and two percent as belonging to another ethnic group.

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